Blog Post interview Leadership rigtip

Get to know: Nina Fricker – Lead Technical Animator at Insomniac Games

Get to know: Nina Fricker – Lead Technical Animator at Insomniac Games

Let’s start off with some questions from our friend Izzy Cheng

Hi Izzy!!!

What is some advice you’d give to people getting into Technical Art or Technical Animation?

AH!! Where to start?? This is a topic I could talk about a LOT.

The main advice I give to aspiring character TDs is to work with a modeler and animator on some characters. This has a numerous benefits. First, the group will push each other to be better at their craft. The rigger is going to find areas where the model needs improvement to get good deformation. The animator is going to find problems with the rig that will require better weighting and controls from the rigger. Everyone can help critique performances. Find people who will really push quality. Ideally at the end of all of this, all three will have great demo reel pieces that each individual wouldn’t have been able to achieve on their own. Another benefit is that you’re basically emulating production. This is how it works in a studio, so getting this kind of experience, and more importantly, getting comfortable and adept at the iteration cycle between departments shows companies that you’re production-ready! Find a way to highlight this collaboration on your resume and demo reel. I’d love to see examples of how the iteration loop between everyone improved the end character and performance. Make sure to talk about this in your interviews! Let people know what animators hated in your rigs, and how you addressed their concerns. It eases my mind, as a hiring manager, to know that you’re comfortable receiving and responding to criticism.

As a veteran in the game industry, what keeps you from burning out?
I have a lot of interests outside of work that keep me balanced. I love to work out, cook, learn, garden. Work/life balance is really important in order to sustain a long career in the game industry. I have been incredibly fortunate to work for studios that take good care of its employees.

Do you have a favorite project you worked on at Insomniac and why?
Ratchet & Clank: Into the Nexus

This was my favorite because it was the project that I felt like the North Carolina studio really hit its stride. As a group we had gone through shipping a few titles together, and had learned to work and collaborate with each other incredibly well. In addition to the working relationship of the team, the project had a really fun plot line and character line up. Into the Nexus had two awesome female characters (Talwyn & Vendra) which was a great new challenge for me. They both had to deliver a wide range of emotion. The animators on the project brought out some spectacular performances from them which I’m still very proud of to this day.

What traits make a good *Lead* Technical Animator?

To me the most important trait of a good lead, regardless of discipline, is that your focus is on making your team successful. Going from an individual contributor to a lead required a major mental shift in what being good at my job looks like. This didn’t come easy after almost a decade of straight-up production work. I still struggle with not being able to do as much work myself. As with all aspects of my career, I’ve received wonderful guidance and mentorship from so many people at Insomniac. They’ve helped me realize that I make a big impact as a force multiplier through leading. This came in the form of CONSTANT reassurance that the success of my team was first and foremost and that my feeling of not doing enough showable production work was a normal reaction. It’s become very fulfilling for me to see the amazing things the folks on my team accomplish.

Great Questions from Izzy, thank you for that, now let us get to some of our own.

Were you always into computer graphics and games or how did you find your way into the industry.

I pretty much decided that I wanted to work in 3D when I was 12 years old. This was when I saw Jurassic Park in the theaters (yes, I’m old). The “Welcome to Jurassic Park” scene where we first see the brachiosaurus blew my mind. Eventually I saw a “making-of” for the film and fell in love with the magic of bringing digital characters to life.
Just a couple years later Toy Story was released in theaters. A full CG animated film. Once again, mind blown.
Around this same time, I had a wonderful teacher in middle school who taught AutoCAD to 7th and 8th graders. Back in the early/mid 90s, this was basically unheard of. Having access to his high-end Linux machines and learning this sophisticated software gave me confidence that I could make things on a computer and learn complicated concepts. I give him a lot of credit for my comfort level with technology at a very early age.
At this point I set a life goal of being a VFX Supervisor at ILM. Granted, at the time, I had absolutely NO idea what that meant. It was just a job title that I saw under the names of people in behind the scenes pieces, so I thought that’s what I was going to be when I grew up.
While in high school, a good friend of mine showed me how to use trueSpace 2 and Bryce 3D. We got both installed on my home machine which freed me to start tinkering around on my own. Also in high school, the cincher of my career direction came out in theaters. The Matrix. Up until then, being techy and computer obsessed was just nerdy. The Matrix was not only technologically inspiring, but it made me feel like being techno-savvy was super bad-ass! I very much wanted to be part of the vfx/cg animation world.
The combination of all these things led me to Full Sail to study Computer Animation. I wanted to get into a job where I was working on 3D characters as soon as possible. It wasn’t until I got to the Character Setup class that I learned that rigging was where I wanted to go with my career. This is also when games as a career started to surface as an option. I didn’t much care which area of entertainment I went into as long as it meant I could work on 3D characters.

Can you share your learning curve and experience over the years as a TD going from finishing school to getting your first job?

The transition from school (where I had both Rigging Dojo founders Brad Clark and Chad Moore as instructors) to my first job lasted roughly 3 months. In this respect, I consider myself INCREDIBLY fortunate.
While still in school, during my rigging class, I had a lab instructor who left towards the end of the course to work at a company called Turbine. Since rigging was something that really sparked my interests, I kept in touch with him throughout the rest of my time at Full Sail. I’d send him my group project rigs and he was gracious enough to give me feedback and advice when I ran into technical issues. Not long after I graduated, this lab instructor turned mentor was looking for an entry level rigger to join his team at Turbine. Thankfully he saw some potential in me and hired me to fill that position!
In my first couple years at Turbine, I learned a ton about the ins and outs of production. There’s so much more to being a developer than the specific craft you’re trained in. It was quite intimidating at first to learn all of that and a game engine. At Full Sail, we didn’t get any exposure to engines or production pipelines. I get the impression that has changed at most schools, and both are now a regular part of 3D programs.

What does your day or week look like now that you are on the Tech Animator side vs. more of a rigging or pipeline TD?

Tech Animation at Insomniac means supporting the rigging pipeline and Maya tools for artist, primarily animators and riggers, but in some cases other departments as well. As a lead, my main responsibilities throughout a week involve jumping around to a number of different things. Depending on what’s going on and where we are in production, things can change week to week. Here are some of the things that I do regularly:
Meet with various feature teams to evaluate progress, plan goals, collaborate on a plan of execution for the next set of goals, etc. It’s in this area that I get closest to our games. The work is very close to the heart of what our audiences will experience.
Meet with the riggers on my team to discuss their goals, both short and long term. This is also where I get feedback from them on how things are going on the team/project/studio.
Provide rigging support for projects. I generally try to stay out of important tasks because the amount of time I can spend on production work can vary greatly day to day. I’ll take on smaller rigging tasks when they pop up. This helps the people on my team stay more focused on the larger things they’re working on. I also really enjoy working on prototypes for a new idea.
Fix bugs both in the game and in our tools.
Work with other leads and the project manager to schedule. Because production is constantly changing and evolving, we evaluate and adjust on a weekly basis.
Collaborate with the character TDs in both studios on direction of our tools.
Participate in code reviews.

Can you talk about developing for VR projects vs. a more traditional game and some things you learned or overcame that might have been a surprise?

As a studio working on our 4th VR title, we’ve learned an incredible amount about developing games for VR. To me the most surprising aspect of working in VR is how easy it is to trick your brain into accepting what you’re seeing is real. Back on Edge of Nowhere development, we had areas of the game where you’d walk along cliff sides that overlooked steep edges. My hands would get really clammy and sweaty every time I ran across them. I truly believe that VR is something you need to experience first hand to really understand it. It’s a very visceral experience to have your fear of heights triggered just by playing a game. It’s an exciting medium to play in and we’re pushing the boundaries exploration in VR with our latest title, Stormland.

This is a behind the scenes teaser (I make a brief appearance):

And here is our trailer!

At Rigging Dojo we get a high percent of female students and some of our most successful students have been women, what has your experience been as a female in Tech and games?

I am extremely fortunate to have spent so much of my career at Insomniac where gender is a non-issue. My leaders and colleagues create a safe, professional and collaborative culture in which everyone is able to thrive. It’s not something I take for granted. What I find the most troubling is that women still only make up a small percentage of the industry. I think we’re hovering somewhere around 15-20%. I thought after 17 years I’d see a more balanced population, but the increase has been meager at best. This makes me sad, and it’s why I got involved with a mentoring program. The least I can do is play a small part in helping more women make their way into this line of work that I love.

You have been a mentor for artists like Izzy who we just interviewed, do you still do mentoring and what was that experience like?

Izzy and I were paired up through a mentorship program called Game Mentor Online which is unfortunately no longer running. It was an excellent program started by Women In Game International that I really enjoyed and wanted to continue with. Since it never came back online, I haven’t been actively seeking a mentoring program, but I would like to find one that has a similar structure and vibe to it. I miss it, and as mentioned above, it’s a way for me to help women break into our industry.
As a side note, Izzy was WELL on her way to a budding career as a Character TD when I started working with her. She’s incredibly smart, hard-working and relentlessly learning new things. I’m so incredibly proud of her! <3

If you could give your past self any advice on working, life and the games industry what would it be?

There was a long time where I was very self conscious and fearful of not knowing things. If a topic came up in conversation that I didn’t understand or wasn’t familiar with, I’d just listen and try to figure things out. It really weighed on my self esteem. On the outside I’d nod along like I was keeping up but, internally I was upset and convinced that I was stupid. I felt like a fraud and that soon I’d be discovered and fired. Eventually… we’re talking years… I had a bit of a mental shift. There came a point when I got so tired of feeling so terrible about myself despite my career still moving forward. I can’t remember the catalyst, but I started experimenting with speaking up. I tried it out a little, here and there, and saw no perceivable adverse effect. As time went on, I got more and more comfortable with putting myself out there and asking questions when something was raised or referenced that I didn’t know or understand. Now, I’m on the complete other end of the spectrum. I ask about anything I don’t know. Completely shameless.

There were a few surprising things that came from this 180 (okay, maybe not THAT surprising, but it was for me)…

1) Nothing bad ever came of it. Not once. No one ever shamed me or made fun of me or thought less of me. In most cases, people have been happy to explain and help me.
2) I learned a lot from my peers. So often people we’re more than happy to take the time to teach me.
3) A lot of people were in the same boat. So many times I’d hear echos from others of “oh yeah, I don’t know either”. There are even times when people who seemingly appear to nod like they understand will admit they don’t when the topic is cracked open! Why do we do that?! I think that showing vulnerability is difficult and uncomfortable, so we tend to do what’s more comfortable. We nod and pretend to know.
My advice to my younger self would be: Let your vulnerable and authentic side show. It’s okay to be imperfect and not know everything. We’re all in good company. Give your peers the benefit of the doubt that they’re more helpful than harmful.

Last question – what book are you reading right now or last finished?

I usually keep both a fun book and informational book going at once.

I just finished Trevor Noah’s Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood. I highly recommend listening to the audiobook version. Now I’m looking for something to read/listen to next. Any recommendations?
On the informational side, I’m reading Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz. It’s an interesting dive into the psychology of being wrong. This kind of stuff is fascinating!

How can people best find you online?

Twitter would be the easiest way, although I don’t post too often: @NinaFricker

 Thank you so much for taking the time for us.

You bet! The pleasure was all mine!

p.s. Want to see someone interviewed, let us know so we can talk with them! Our next interview will be with Sophie @ Insomniac Games California

A character TD/rigger on the awesome  title! Congrats!

Then next after her in our women in Tech Art series will be Julia Bystrova, Lead Character Rigger at Tangent Animation who just finished up work on the all Blender CG film from Netlfix called “Next Gen” by 

We hope to have more Blender training available this coming year as it expands and matures its animation and rigging tool set along with major UI improvements (Blender Rigging for Netflix Next Gen )

Blog Post interview

Get to know: Isabella Cheng – Technical Artist at Survios

Get to know: Isabella Cheng – Technical Artist and Rigging Dojo Alumna

Isabella Cheng Technical Artist at Survios

Isabella Cheng
Technical Artist at Survios

Let’s get started with a bit of background about you, were you always in to computer programming and tech?

I was always into games and computers. I went to school at USC for Computer Science with the notion that I’d be a game programmer. Turns out I really like working with artists and I happen to also be artistic, so I applied my skills as a Technical Artist. My first industry job out of college was pipeline scripting for mobile games. But then I discovered the ?magic of rigging ?and working with character art, and thought, “Hey I think I can get pretty good at this.”

Can you share your learning curve and experience over the years as a TD going from finishing school, finding Rigging Dojo and getting your first industry job?

Personally my transition from mobile pipeline stuff to rigging and Unreal felt almost like a career change. When I was first dabbling in rigging on my own, I had no idea what I was doing. I was self teaching myself using tutorials online but they weren’t enough to help me really grasp the core concepts. I heard about Rigging Dojo and signed up as soon as I could, and a couple months in Rigging 101 filled the gaps I was missing. I used what I learned from Rigging Dojo on a couple side projects, and finally landed a job at Survios rigging and scripting for VR games.

Walk us through what your day or week looks like. How much time coding or pipeline work vs. rigging and character work are you doing for example.

I do a whole variety of things, and it really depends on the needs of our projects. There was a huge need for pipeline scripting when I joined, so a lot of my time was spent building pipeline Maya tools that help our artists and animators. But when a project ramps up with a lot of characters, I fill that role as well. I could be spending a whole week on one task. Another day could be that I’m rigging a character in the morning for one game, and I’m scripting a tool in the afternoon for another game. To my surprise, by far my favorite part of my job is working on motion capture and the mocap data pipeline, it’s incredibly rewarding to take a human performance and see it on a 3D character.

Image of Sprint Vector by Survios

Image of Sprint Vector by Survios


Was there already a pipeline in place at the studio you’re at now or did you have to help build it? What was a challenge or improvement that came from that process?

There was a rigging pipeline in place before I joined using an auto-rigger. After I joined, the characters for our games got more complicated, and I helped build out our own inhouse rigging tools. The rigging and animation team never stops improving the pipeline. The biggest challenges I continue to face is balancing time in R&D with actual development. Luckily my team is given time to research the best solutions to solve character and animation pipeline issues, but it’s challenging to begin trying something, not knowing exactly what to expect. But this is also what makes my work exciting and rewarding.

Let’s talk tools, are there publicly available scripts or tools you like to use when rigging?

Absolutely! First and foremost we use the Unreal A.R.T tools because Survios is an Unreal house. I use ngSkinTools personally for skinning weights, even though my coworker hates it ?

I came across Studio Library for our animators and it’s been great. But if I don’t find a tool that suits my needs, I tend to either find something close and modify it, or build it from scratch.

How much stock Maya vs. custom inhouse tools or maybe runtime rigging in Unreal are you using?

For player movement, we have a system in Unreal that handles our character movement in VR that is completely custom inhouse. Unlike traditional games, our animators don’t necessarily animate everything for the player character because locomotion is being tracked by the VR controllers and head mount display. For other NPC characters, we are using the stock Unreal rigging stuff given to us. On the Maya side, we use a combination of stock, third-party and custom inhouse tools. The problem with having a ton of custom inhouse tools is we can’t migrate our tools as fast as new Maya versions come out.

Anything you wish would get fixed or changed in the software to improve production work and make it easier?

Right now his tool is in Beta, but I hope Jeremy Ernst releases his second version of the rigging tools soon!!

Do you see any major changes to how you are working now with Unreal and character rigging?

I definitely see major changes working with Unreal, it’s a whole other beast. One of the biggest considerations we take creating characters is how easily we can reuse animations and what that implies in Unreal. Unreal can retarget animations from one skeletal mesh to another. But that means if we want to fully utilize our animation budget, we have to make sure a number of characters are not wildly different where we have to create a whole new set of animations for one character. This mindset starts all the way at the character concept phase. Of course, these decisions are project-specific, but we only have 3 animators, 2 riggers and 2 character artists! As riggers we have to decide the best way to build the skeleton that will work for a variety of characters, and when brought into Unreal, making sure the animations don’t look and retarget terribly.

Having first worked with Unity and now Unreal what are your thoughts on learning them and any tips or gotchas you could share?

Learning Unreal is really fun, and being familiar with Unity made it a bit easier. The gotchas for me are the Blueprint system in Unreal and animation retargeting.

With the animation retargeting on skeletons instead of a “rig” like in Unity, are there any things you know to help out that process or have looked into to improve the retarget results?

Since we are conscious about retargeting and reusing animations across multiple characters, we make sure our joint orients and positions across our characters that share the same skeleton/animations are similar enough that the animations won’t look terrible in engine. For retargeting in general, I have just started playing around with MotionBuilder, and I’m super excited and impressed with the results I’m getting!

What have you found , training wise to have been the most helpful to you growing as a character TD? Any last tips or advice you can give to someone that wants to improve their skills as a TD?

Rigging Dojo, duh! The community that surrounds rigging is actually super cool and friendly, which makes finding resources very easy. So feel lucky as a growing character TD you chose this path, and don’t be shy to reach out!

If you’re working on your demo reel, find a model you think would be a fun challenge to rig, and try it! And +100 points if you find an animator to test it for you and give you feedback, and they could use it on their portfolio. It’s a win-win.

Want to really improve your skills as a TD? Go and take the online anatomy class by Scott Eaton. It is amazing, period. I’m in the middle of it right now, but it’s already helped me understand the puzzle pieces of the human body. Which makes me a better rigger!

At Rigging Dojo we get a high percent of female students and some of our most successful students have been women. If at all, have you faced issues or challenges that male peers might not have?

I can fortunately say that I have not faced these sorts of issues. I had pretty much the same challenges, and luckily at Survios we maintain a really collaborative and inclusive culture, and I’m not treated any differently than any other game developer because of my gender.

That is great to hear that and also a nod to the studio you work at for making it a balanced environment.

Now that you’re working vs. fresh out of school is there anything that you see missing in current TD skills or reels? Could be advice to your past self making a reel.

I didn’t come from an animation background, so sometimes I feel like I’m a mechanic that doesn’t know how to drive a car. I’m learning a ton from the animators I work with at Survios about their creative processes. As a rigger it’s been a learning experience working with them first hand and balancing their wants and needs. Advice to myself (past and present) would be to take some animation classes and try to animate things myself in order to better tap into an animator’s mindset. I wouldn’t necessarily put my animations on my reel, but I would learn some valuable things about what animators expect out of a rig, and those choices are important for a portfolio.

Last question – what book are you reading right now or last finished?

For my class we’re using a book called Figure Drawing For All It’s Worth by Andrew Loomis. Beautiful drawings and approximations of the human body. I’ve never taken art classes so this pretty much blew my mind.

The last book I finished was Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep by Phillip K. Dick. Because Blade Runner.

How can people best find you online?

You can follow or message me on Twitter @izzyccheng, email me at [email protected],  Or if you join the Slack channel, I’m on there as well!

Thank you so much for taking the time for us.

Thanks for the interview!!!


rigtip tutorial video

Skinning Rigtip for a little known tool

Move Weights tool, a little known tool that you should be using to make skinning easier and allow for added control in a pinch. TDs can use it to speed up skinning by copying good weighting to new joints for twist, like shoulders to a few new twist joints in the upper arm for example.

Mesh and Rig from AnimRig – Amazing Spiderman – Free Download

Rig free from that we used for this #rigTip video.


Blog Post tutorial

Cult of Rig : Season 00 Day 009 Applying Math to Fix Components

The rig as you see it by the end of this session, plus a little bit of crud cleaned out, is now available at…
If you’ve fallen behind but still want to nodel with me, now you can catch up. Or just take it apart 🙂

Season 00 Day009 Stream – Applying Math to Fix Components
“Building upon the theory established the previous day we can now flatten the rig hierarchy some more to extract the pedals from their FK only position, and complete the transform for the staff to inherit rotation.”

Rigging Dojo Notes

  • Why not make everything flat? While keeping the controls not in a deep hiearchy helps with flexablity but making a flat “component” limits the amount of control you get out of the component, in Maya you can always get worldspace from a node so making everything worldspace/flat you loose any local data you get from a hierarchy.
  • Fix the rig:
    • Graph from the output or forward from the input of the component to start walking the graph and troubleshoot the rig.
    • Matrix multiply pedals_M_staff_ctrl  by pedals_M_staff_ctrl_srtBuffer (order matters)
      • decompose the matrix and  and drive the rotation of the staves_srt to fix the current rig bug.
  • Fix IK control

  • To get the IK FK blend, need to make sure both are in the same space
  • Here Raf blasts away chunks of the rig instead of trying to fix or figure out what they were doing.
  • He explores getting the pedals_M_ikPedals_projectedAngle_fnode hooked up to the same space as the FK driver.
  • There is some discussion as he rehooks up the nodes so it is a good point to watch from here
  • Tips: expression vs. nodes? try both and see what is faster in your rig but stay away from Python Nodes so they don’t play well with parallel.

Pedal settings of the IK FK attribute

  • If you name the attribute FK IK switch, then that is the order it should blend in, pay attention to those details.
  • *Q: do you alias attributes? No Raf hates them and it complicates things later on, don’t bother.
  • Some left over logic nodes from past videos Raf hooked the nodes back up to the animBlendNodeAdditive  weights to hook it back up like before.

Question: What about rigging like this with so many nodes vs. constraints etc, does it become complicated, but the point of this is to learn to rig with CLEAR input and Output of each component. It is easier to refactor for complex rigging.
Maya needs compound nodes (if they do) this style of rigging will scale better as it gets more complex (parallel processing for Maya)

Request: Node editor: let us grab a connection line and drag duplicate to another node for connection instead of having to click on the source node and drag the connections.

Change space of the pedals and update the rig

Fix a pedal offset bug

RDNotes:At this point in the video, Raf has to explore and troubleshoot the graph- he knows what he is doing and build the graph and still hits a problem. This is how rigging goes, it isn’t a perfect straight path to a working rig. This is what the job is, and worth watching how it works through how to fix the problem.

….to be continued in the next stream



Get involved:

Scene used to display the functions is available at:…
Maya 2016 and up.

Follow me on twitter for announcements and news

Check out the calendar for up-to-date information and times

Follow the Streams live on Twitch

And keep up to date with news on the website

Blog Post

Cult of Rig : Season 00 Day 008 Math Crash Course

Season 00 Day 008 Stream – Math Crash Course – Trigonometry and Matrix Mult

Trig is the study and solution of triangles…or all angles

Starting with Trigonometry as it is a basic and good place to start vs. starting with linear algebra that creates lots of extra wasted calculations.

“You hear me mention custom nodes…doesn’t mean you don’t have to use custom nodes unless you need performance, but the math part is important for foundations”


  • Right triangle is where we start (triangle with 90 degree corner)
    • degree vs. radian
      • Also the “Why” of when unitConversion nodes show up as you connect a translate value to rotation.
      • unitConversion nodes are normal maya nodes with some basic math (conversion factors) and change the type of the connection at the output (
    • Scene used to display the functions is available at:…
      Maya 2016 and up.
  • Back to radians
    • Radius of the circle  R=1   means 1/2 is PI 3.14  so full raius is 2 PI R
    • when you see radians the start of the circle is 0, end is 2 PI, half circle is 1/2 PI
  • Degrees
    • Circle is broken in to 360 values , 0, 90, 180, 270, 360
  • The relationship between the two is PI = 180   so if you need to convert them 3.14/180 to convert so when you look in the unitConversion node you see this math happening.

When you create triangles from a unit circle you always get hypontus of 1, simplifying calculations.

function of an angle (works in radians always works  between [-1,1]

  • Sin
  • Cos
  • Tangent ( can be infinite)

Each function has an inverse

  • arc sin
  • arc cos
  • arc Tangent

What do these do?

If we say the we get the Sin of the triangle leg, the Arc Sin will give us the Angle.

Given any axis, if you are rotating around Z for example , clockwise will be negative.  This isn’t great so flip the mesh around so that the rotation will be positive.

*Do follow along in Maya with the example scene and also create with Raf.

  • Build some primitives named
    • sine
    • cosine
  • We will rotate the HY transform node (from the example file) and on its rotation  to create an expression

skip from 30:00 to here to see 35.32 to see the expression work

in expression editor type sine.ty = sin(hy.rz) and click create

Rotate the hy node to see the SINE node translate up and down. Because the connection creates a unitConversion by default you can change the value in the unitConversion node to 1 to allow it to pass through to the SIN() in the expression with no rad/deg convert.

Next we create the cosine transform expression  cosine.tx = cos(hy.rz) so we now have our nodes translating up and down and left and right as we rotate the HY node.

Behind the scenes in Maya when you take  a “vector” and rotate it with Matrix Math.

If we connect the  translate X from cosine and translate Y from sine to a new transform you can see that the new Transform (say a new sphere) you will get the same action as if a parent constraint on the new sphere following the HY node.

The combination of the Sin and Cos create a translation the spears to be a rotation.

Soh Cah Toa

For any giving angle there are two sides, (legs) adjacent, opposite and hypotenuse

S(?) = 0/h  C(?)=a/h  T(?)=o/a

Law of Sin and Law of Cosin 55:30

a/sinA = b/sinB = c/sinC

Law of cosines is the foundation for IK solvers like the 2 bone solver

“I mention all of this because when ever you are using Matrices because this is what you are doing under the hood a lot”


Linear field of numbers with sides

Vector for example is a single column Matrix.

Raf gets in two a few topic tangents and you are best watching it as it is hard to note what he was talking about with all the drawing and graphics.

What happens when the Matrix is not normal? 1:15


Why is this important?



Get involved:

Scene used to display the functions is available at:…
Maya 2016 and up.

Follow me on twitter for announcements and news

Check out the calendar for up-to-date information and times

Follow the Streams live on Twitch

And keep up to date with news on the website